• spiritmtn3

Snake Venom Components: Tools and Cures to Target Cardiovascular Diseases Jacinthe Frangieh et al.

Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered as a major cause of death worldwide. Therefore, identifying and developing therapeutic strategies to treat and reduce the prevalence of CVDs is a major medical challenge. Several drugs used for the treatment of CVDs, such as captopril, emerged from natural products, namely snake venoms. These venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, which, among other physiological networks, target the cardiovascular system, leading to them being considered in the development and design of new drugs. In this review, we describe some snake venom molecules targeting the cardiovascular system such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2), natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), disintegrins, fibrinolytic enzymes, and three-finger toxins (3FTXs). In addition, their molecular targets, and mechanisms of action-vasorelaxation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, cardioprotective activities-are discussed. The dissection of their biological effects at the molecular scale give insights for the development of future snake venom-derived drugs. Keywords: anti-platelet agent; cardiovascular diseases; drugs discovery; hypotensive agent; snake venom; vasorelaxant effect.

Conflict of interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures Figure 1 Overview of snake toxins acting… Figure 2 Overview of the molecular targets…

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles


  1. Fry B.G., Vidal N., Norman J.A., Vonk F.J., Scheib H., Ramjan S.F.R., Kuruppu S., Fung K., Blair Hedges S., Richardson M.K., et al. Early Evolution of the Venom System in Lizards and Snakes. Nature. 2006;439:584–588. doi: 10.1038/nature04328. - DOI - PubMed

  1. Mackessy S.P. Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles. CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL, USA: 2010.

  1. Utkin Y.N. Animal Venom Studies: Current Benefits and Future Developments. WJBC. 2015;6:28–33. doi: 10.4331/wjbc.v6.i2.28. - DOI - PMC- PubMed

  1. Gopalakrishnakone P. Snake Venoms. Springer; Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: New York, NY, USA: 2016.

  1. Amazonas D.R., Freitas-de-Sousa L.A., Orefice D.P., Sousa L.F., de Martinez M.G., Mourão R.H.V., Chalkidis H.M., Camargo P.B., Moura-da-Silva A.M. Evidence for Snake Venom Plasticity in a Long-Term Study with Individual Captive Bothrops Atrox. Toxins. 2019;11:294. doi: 10.3390/toxins11050294. - DOI - PMC -PubMed

Show all 109 references

2 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All

Spike Protein is what causes COVID It binds aggressively to ACE2 and now we know it likely binds also to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which is why people lose their sense of smell just

---------- 🌎 Let's look to other Great Sources also COVID Treatment - Truth for Health Foundation COVIDPatientGuide-TFH-TWO-Page-Summary-2021.pdf ( Spike Detox and General Health